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Institute of Reproducing Kernels

Kawauchi-cho, 5-1648-16,

Kiryu 376-0041, Japan

E-mail: kbdmm360@yahoo.co.jp

May 22, 2016situation on the division by zero and propose basic new challenges.

By

\frac{b}{a} \tag{1.1}

\end{equation}for any complex numbers $a$ and $b$, we found the result, for any complex number $b$

\begin{equation}

\frac{b}{0}=0, \tag{1.2}

\end{equation}incidentally in [10] by the Tikhonov regularization for the Hadamard product inversions for matrices, and we discussed their properties and gave several physical interpretations on the general fractions in [4] for the case of real numbers.

The division by zero has a long and mysterious story over the world $($see, for example, Google site with division by zero$)$ with its physical viewpoints since the document of zero in India on AD 628, however, Sin-Ei, Takahasi [4] established a simple and decisive interpretation $($1.2$)$ by analyzing some full extensions of fractions and by showing the complete characterization for the property $($1.2$)$:

\begin{equation}

F (b, a)F (c, d)= F (bc, ad)

\end{equation}

$$

F (b, a) = \frac {b}{a }, \quad a, b \in {\bf C }, a \ne 0.

$$

\[

F (b, 0) = 0.

\]

Note that the complete proof of this proposition is simply given by 2 or 3 lines.

We thus should consider, for any complex number $b$, as $($1.2$)$; that is, for the mapping

\begin{equation}

w = \frac{1}{z}, \tag{1.3}

\end{equation}the image of $z=0$ is $w=0$ $($

However, the division by zero $($1.2$)$ is now clear, indeed, for the introduction of $($1.2$)$, we have several independent approaches as in:

1) by the generalization of the fractions by the Tikhonov regularization or by the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse,

2) by the intuitive meaning of the fractions $($division$)$ by H. Michiwaki,

3) by the unique extension of the fractions by S. Takahasi, as in the above,

4) by the extension of the fundamental function $W = 1/z$ from ${\bf C} \setminus \{0\}$ into ${\bf C}$ such that $W =1/z$ is a one to one and onto mapping from $ {\bf C} \setminus \{0\} $ onto ${\bf C} \setminus \{0\}$ and the division by zero $1/0=0$ is a one to one and onto mapping extension of the function $W =1/z $ from ${\bf C}$ onto ${\bf C}$,

and

5) by considering the values of functions with the mean values of functions.

Furthermore, in [6] we gave the results in order to show the reality of the division by zero in our world:

A) a field structure containing the division by zero --- the Yamada field ${\bf Y}$,

B) by the gradient of the $y$ axis on the $(x,y)$ plane --- $\tan \frac{\pi}{2} =0$,

C) by the reflection $W =1/\overline{z}$ of $W= z$ with respect to the unit circle with center at the origin on the complex $z$ plane --- the reflection point of zero is zero,

and

D) by considering rotation of a right circular cone having some very interesting phenomenon from some practical and physical problem.

In [7], many division by zero results in Euclidean spaces are given and the basic idea at the point at infinity should be changed. In [5], we gave beautiful geometrical interpretations of determinants from the viewpoint of the division by zero. The results show that the division by zero is our basic and elementary mathematics in our world.

See J. A. Bergstra, Y. Hirshfeld and J. V. Tucker [2] for the relationship between fields and the division by zero, and the importance of the division by zero for computer science. It seems that the relationship of the division by zero and field structures are abstract in their paper.

Meanwhile, J. P. Barukcic and I. Barukcic [1] discussed recently the relation between the divisions $0/0$, $1/0$ and special relative theory of Einstein. However, their logic seems to be curious and their results contradict with ours.

Furthermore, T. S. Reis and J.A.D.W. Anderson [8,9] extend the system of the real numbers by introducing an ideal number for the division by zero $0/0$.

Meanwhile, we should refer to up-to-date information:

Here, we recall Albert Einstein's words on mathematics: Blackholes are where God divided by zero. I don't believe in mathematics. George Gamow $($1904-1968$)$ Russian-born American nuclear physicist and cosmologist remarked that "it is well known to students of high school algebra" that division by zero is not valid; and Einstein admitted it as

For our ideas on the division by zero, see the survey style announcements 179, 185, 237, 246,247, 250 and 252 of the Institute of Reproducing Kernels [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21].

The mysterious history of the division by zero over one thousand years is a great shame of mathematicians and human race on the world history, like the Ptolemaic system $($geocentric theory$)$. The division by zero will become a typical symbol of foolish human race with long and unceasing struggles. Future people will realize this fact as a definite common sense.

We should check and fill our mathematics, globally and beautifully, from the viewpoint of the division by zero. Our mathematics will be more perfect and beautiful, and will give great impacts to our basic ideas on the universe.

3. Albert Einstein's biggest blunder

containing the division by zero. Now we should check the theory and the problems by the concept of the RIGHT and DEFINITE division by zero. Now is the best time since 100 years from Albert Einstein. It seems that the background knowledge is timely fruitful.

4. Computer systems

5. General ideas on the universe

We are standing on a new generation and in front of the new world, as in the discovery of the Americas.

References

[2] J. A. Bergstra, Y. Hirshfeld and J. V. Tucker, Meadows and the equational specification of division $($arXiv:0901.0823v1[math.RA] 7 Jan 2009$)$.

[3] L. P. Castro and S. Saitoh, Fractional functions and their representations, Complex Anal. Oper. Theory

[4] M. Kuroda, H. Michiwaki, S. Saitoh, and M. Yamane, New meanings of the division by zero and interpretations on $100/0=0$ and on $0/0=0$,

Int. J. Appl. Math.

[5] T. Matsuura and S. Saitoh, Matrices and division by zero $z/0=0$, Linear Algebra \& Matrix Theory $($ALAMT$)$ $($to appear$)$.

[6] H. Michiwaki, S. Saitoh, and M.Yamada, Reality of the division by zero $z/0=0$. IJAPM International J. of Applied Physics and Math.

[7] H. Michiwaki, H. Okumura, and S. Saitoh, Division by Zero $z/0 = 0$ in Euclidean Spaces. International Journal of Mathematics and Computation $($in press$)$.

[9] T. S. Reis and J.A.D.W. Anderson, Transreal Calculus, IAENG International J. of Applied Math.,

[10]

[11] S.-E. Takahasi, M. Tsukada and Y. Kobayashi, Classification of continuous fractional binary operations on the real and complex fields, Tokyo Journal of Mathematics,

[12] Announcement 179 $($2014.8.30$)$: Division by zero is clear as $z/0=0$ and it is fundamental in mathematics.

[13] Announcement 185 $($2014.10.22$)$: The importance of the division by zero $z/0=0$.

[14] Announcement 237 $($2015.6.18$)$: A reality of the division by zero $z/0=0$ by geometrical optics.

[15] Announcement 246 $($2015.9.17$)$: An interpretation of the division by zero $1/0=0$ by the gradients of lines.

[16] Announcement 247 $($2015.9.22$)$: The gradient of y-axis is zero and $\tan (\pi/2) =0$ by the division by zero $1/0=0$.

[17] Announcement 250 $($2015.10.20$)$: What are numbers? - the Yamada field containing the division by zero $z/0=0$.

[18] Announcement 252 $($2015.11.1$)$: Circles and curvature - an interpretation by Mr. Hiroshi Michiwaki of the division by zero $r/0 = 0$.

[19] Announcement 281$($2016.2.1$)$: The importance of the division by zero $z/0=0$.

[20] Announcement 282$($2016.2.2$)$: The Division by Zero $z/0=0$ on the Second Birthday.

[21] Announcement 293$($2016.3.27$)$: Parallel lines on the Euclidean plane from the viewpoint of division by zero 1/0=0.

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奥村博 $($Hiroshi Okumura$)$

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